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Tabela/razpredelnica angleških časov = Table of English Tenses

ANGLEŠKI ČASI - RAZPREDELNICA (Table of English Tenses)

Angleški časi (English tenses) tvorijo enega izmed najpomembnejših poglavij angleške slovnice. V nadaljevanju sledi njihova razpredelnica. Iz razpredelnice v drugem stolpcu vidimo obliko, v tretjem rabo in v zadnjem še prislove značilne za posamezen čas.

ŽELIM KNJIGO Z RAZLAGAMI ANGLEŠKIH ČASOV IN ŠTEVILNIMI VAJAMI

Tabela angleških časov

ČAS

 

TRDILNE/ NIKALNE/ VPRAŠALNE POVEDI

RABA

PRIMERI PRISLOVOV

Present Simple

HE/SHE/IT
+ He speaks English.
- He does not speak English. (doesn’t)
? Does he speak English?

I/YOU/WE/THEY
+: You speak English.
-: You do not speak English. (don’t)
?: Do you speak English?

1) Ponavljajoča dejanja:
My friend often draws. 
I never drink milk.

2) Splošne resnice:
The sun rises in the East.

3) Ustaljeni dogovori, planirani dogodki (npr. vozni red):
The plane flies to London every Monday.

4) Za nekaterimi posebnimi glagoli, pri katerih ne uporabljamo Pre.Con. (ti gl.izražajo stanja, lastništvo, čustva, miselne procese, itd.):
be, believe, belong, hate, hear, like, love, mean, prefer, remain, realize, see, seem, smell, think, understand, want, wish. 
I understand English. 
He doesn't like fish.

always, every Monday/

July/week, never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually

Present Continuous

I
+: I am speaking English. (I’m)
-: I am not speaking English.
?: Am I speaking English?

HE/SHE/IT
+: He is speaking English. (He’s)
-: He is not speaking English. (isn’t)
?: Is he speaking English?

WE/YOU/THEY
+: They are speaking English. (They’re)
-: They are not speaking English. (aren’t)
?: Are they speaking English?

1) Dejanja v času govora (now, at the moment):
Peter is reading a book now. She’s listening to the radio.

2) Načrt v bližnji prihodnosti:
She is going to Brazil on Saturday.
I’m meeting Jim tonight.

3) Začasna dejanja (pogosto skupaj s “today/this week/month/year):
His father is working in Rome this month.

I usually go to work by car, but this week I am riding a bike.
4) Dejanja, ki se dogajajo okrog časa govora (daljša dejanja):
My friend is preparing for his exams.

 

right now, at the moment, just, now, Listen!, Look!... (zadnja dva sicer nista prislova, vendar pogosto nakazujeta, da sledi ta čas)

Past Simple

I/YOU/HE/SHE/IT/WE/YOU/THEY
+: You spoke English.
-: You did not speak English. (didn’t)
?: Did you speak English?

1) V preteklosti zaključena dejanja (navadno z dovršnimi glagoli):
I visited Berlin last week. 
Andrew watched TV yesterday.

yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday, (v vprašanjih z) when

Past Continuous

I/HE/SHE/IT
+: He was speaking English.
-: He was not speaking English. (wasn’t)
?: Was he speaking English?

WE/YOU/THEY
+: They were speaking English.
-: They were not speaking English. (weren’t)
?: Were they speaking English?

1) Dejanja, ki niso bila zaključena ob določenem času v preteklosti (navadno z nedovršnimi glagoli):
Peter was reading a book  yesterday evening.
She was listening to the radio for three hours.
2) Skupaj s “Past Simple” časom:
While we were sitting at the breakfast table, the telephone rang. (pogosto ima stavek v teh primerih veznik "while")

while, the whole afternoon, from nine to ten

Present Perfect Simple

HE/SHE/IT
+: He has spoken English. (He’s)
-: He has not spoken English. (hasn’t)
?: Has he spoken English?

I/WE/YOU/THEY

+: They have spoken English. (They’ve)
-: They have not spoken English. (haven’t)
?: Have they spoken English?

Dejanja, ki so se zgodila v preteklosti in imajo zvezo s sedanjostjo
1) Rezultat dejanja v preteklosti je pomemben za sedanjost (ni pomembno, kdaj se je dejanje zgodilo; ko imamo določeno točko v  preteklosti - npr. yesterday – potem uporabimo Past Simple):
I have cleaned my room. (It is clean now.)
Has Peggy ever been to Tokyo? (Does she now have this experience or not?)
2) Pravkar zaključena dejanja:
He has just played handball. (It is over now.)

3) Dejanja, ki so se začela v preteklosti in se še niso končala – večinoma s "since" (+časovna točka) ali"for" (+časovno obdobje):
We have lived in Canada since 1986. (We still live there.)

 

 

 

 

 

just, yet, never, ever, already, so far, up to now, since, for, recently, (vprašalnici) How long/How many times,   today/this week/month/ year ("today, this week/month/

year" se pri Present Perfect Simple-u pojavlja v prevodih s preteklikom v slovenščini; npr.

I haven't seen her today. = Danes je še nisem videla.)

Present Perfect Continuous

HE/SHE/IT
+: He has been speaking at the conference for an hour now. (He’s)
-: He has not been speaking the truth. (hasn’t)
?: Has he been speaking the truth?

I/WE/YOU/THEY

:+ They have been speaking at the conference for an hour now. (They’ve)
-: They have not been speaking the truth. (haven’t)
?: Have they been speaking the truth?

1)  Dejanjih, ki so se začela v preteklosti in se nadaljujejo v sedanjost/ so se pravkar končala/ se nadaljujejo tudi v prihodnost:

I have been waiting for you for an hour.

I have been teaching for ten years.

2)  Neprekinjen potek neke dejavnosti - zato se pogosto pojavlja s sledečimi glagoli: try (poskusiti), live (živeti), wait (čakati), teach (poučevati), sit (sedeti), learn (učiti se),  rest (počivati), stay (ostati):

I have been living in the capital for a year.

3) Pri tem času je poudarek na trajanju in ne toliko na rezultatu dejanja, kot pri času "Present Perfect Simple" in v primerjavi s Present Perf. Sim. je to nedovršeno dejanje:

I have been writing reports since eight.

I have written two reports since eight.

how long, since, for,   lately, recently

 

Future Simple

I/YOU/HE/SHE/IT/WE/ YOU/THEY
+: He will speak English. (He’ll)
-: He will not speak English. (won’t)
?: Will he speak English?

1) Prihodnja dejanja, ki se zgodijo brez govorčevega vpliva (birthday, weather, itd.):
The sun will shine tomorrow. Peter will be 15 next Tuesday.

2) Spontana dejanja (niso načrtovana):
Hang on! I'll have a word with you.

in a year, next …, tomorrow

Future Perfect Simple

I/YOU/HE/SHE/IT/WE/ YOU/THEY

+: He will have spoken English by next year. (He’ll)
-: He will not have spoken English by next year. (won’t)
?: Will he have spoken English by next year?

1) Ko želimo povedati, da se bo neko dejanje zgodilo pred nekim drugim dejanjem, ali pred določeno časovno točko v prihodnosti:
I will have finished this report by the time you come.
I will have finished this report by next week.

 

 

 

by next month,  by this time tomorrow

Future Perfect Continuous

I/YOU/HE/SHE/IT/WE/ YOU/THEY

+: He will have been speaking English for ten years by 2012. (He’ll)
-: He will not have been speaking English for ten years by 2012. (won’t)
?: Will he have been speaking English for ten years by 2012?

 

 

1) Ta čas izraža dejanje, ki se neprekinjeno razteza do neke točke v prihodnosti (včasih tudi po njej):

You will have been working at Lek for three years tomorrow.

 

 

 

in a year, next …, tomorrow, by next month,  by this time tomorrow

Going to

I
+: I’m going to speak to Mary.
-: I am not going to speak to Mary. (I’m)
?: Am I going to speak to Mary?

HE/SHE/IT
+: He is going to speak to Mary. (He’s)
-: He is not going to speak to Mary. (isn’t)
?: Is he going to speak to Mary?

WE/YOU/THEY

+: They are going to speak to Mary. (They’re)
-: They are not going to speak to Mary. (aren’t)
?: Are they going to speak to Mary?

1) Načrtovana dejanja v prihodnosti:

We are going to sing at the party.

They are going to fly to South Africa.

2) Sklepanje o bližnji prihodnosti na osnovi dokazov v naravi:

Look at the sky! It is going to rain.

Linda’s pregnancy tummy is big now. She is going to have a baby soon.

in one year, next week, tomorrow

Past Perfect Simple

I/WE/YOU/THEY/ HE/ SHE/IT
+: He had spoken to him before Jim moved. (He’d)
-: He had not spoken to him before Jim moved. (hadn’t)
?: Had he spoken to him before Jim moved?

Čas je po rabi enak slovenskemu predpretekliku. Slednji je že skoraj povsem izumrl (Ko je Marko prišel domov, so bili že povečerjali.). Tudi v angleščini ta čas uporabljamo samo, kadar govorimo v navezi z drugim preteklim dejanjem (slednje je najpogosteje v času “Past Simple”); ko govorimo o dejanju, ki se je zgodilo pred nekim preteklim dejanjem.

When Marko came home, they had already had dinner. = Ko je Marko prišel domov, so bili že povečerjali.

When, before, after, as soon as, by the time

Past Perfect Continuous

I/WE/YOU/THEY/HE/ SHE/IT
+: He had been speaking the truth before he left. (He’d)
-: He had not been speaking the truth before he left. (hadn’t)
?: Had he been speaking the truth before he left?

Ta čas uporabljamo, ko govorimo o dejanjih, ki so se začela v preteklosti in nadaljevala do določenega trenutka v preteklosti. To je pretekli ekvivalent časa "Present Perfect Continuous", s to razliko, da "Present Perfect Continuous" traja do sedanjosti, "Past Perfect Continuous" pa do časovne točke ali drugega dejanja v preteklosti.

When I saw her dog in the morning, it was really tired. It had been running around for the whole night. = Ko sem zjutraj videla njenega psa, je bil res utrujen. Tekel je naokoli celo noč. (Začel je teči v preteklosti in je do zjutraj neprekinjeno tekel.)

When, before, after, by the time