Tabela/razpredelnica angleških časov = Table of English Tenses

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ANGLEŠKI ČASI - RAZPREDELNICA (Table of English Tenses)

 

Angleški časi (English tenses) tvorijo enega izmed najpomembnejših poglavij angleške slovnice. V nadaljevanju sledi njihova razpredelnica. Iz razpredelnice v drugem stolpcu vidimo obliko, v tretjem rabo in v zadnjem še prislove značilne za posamezen čas.

 

ŽELIM KNJIGO Z RAZLAGAMI ANGLEŠKIH ČASOV IN ŠTEVILNIMI VAJAMI

 

 

ČAS

(English tense)

TRDILNE/NIKALNE/ VPRAŠALNE POVEDI

RABA

PRIMERI PRISLOVOV

Present Simple

HE/SHE/IT
+ He speaks English.
- He does not speak English. (doesn’t)
? Does he speak English?

I/YOU/WE/THEY:
+: You speak English.
-: You do not speak English. (don’t)
?: Do you speak English?

1) Ponavljajoča dejanja:
My friend often draws. 
I never drink milk.

2) Splošne resnice:
The sun rises in the East.

3) Ustaljeni dogovori,planirani dogodki (npr. vozni red):
The plane flies to London every Monday.

4) Za nekaterimi posebnimi glagoli, pri katerih ne uporabljamo Pre.Con. (ti gl.izražajo stanja, lastništvo, čustva, miselne procese, itd.):
be, believe, belong, hate, hear, like, love, mean, prefer, remain, realize, see, seem, smell, think, understand, want, wish 
I understand English. 
He doesn't like fish.

always, every Monday/July/week, never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually

Present Continuous

I
+: I am speaking English. (I’m)
-: I am not speaking English.
?: Am I speaking English?

HE/SHE/IT
+: He is speaking English. (He’s)
-: He is not speaking English. (isn’t)
?: Is he speaking English?

WE/YOU/THEY
+: They are speaking English. (They’re)
-: They are not speaking English. (aren’t)
?: Are they speaking English?

1) Dejanja v času govora(now, at the moment):
Peter is reading a book now. She’s listening to the radio.

2) Načrt v bližnji prihodnosti:
She is going to Brazil on Saturday.
I’m meeting Jim tonight.

3) Začasna dejanja:
His father is working in Rome this month.
4) Dejanja, ki se dogajajo okrog časa govora (daljša dejanja):
My friend is preparing for his exams.

right now, at the moment, just, now, Listen!, Look!... (zadnja dva sicer nista prislova, vendar pogosto nakazujeta, da sledi ta čas)

Past Simple

I/YOU/HE/SHE/IT/WE/YOU/THEY
+: You spoke English.
-: You did not speak English. (didn’t)
?: Did you speak English?

1) V preteklosti zaključena dejanja:
I visited Berlin last week. 
Andrew watched TV yesterday.

yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday, (vprašalnica) when

Past Continuous

I/HE/SHE/IT
+: He was speaking English.
-: He was not speaking English. (wasn’t)
?: Was he speaking English?

WE/YOU/THEY
+: They were speaking English.
-: They were not speaking English. (weren’t)
?: Were they speaking English?

1) Dejanja, ki niso bila zaključena ob določenem času v preteklosti –NEDOVRŠENA DEJANJA:
Peter was reading a book  yesterday evening.
She was listening to the radio.
2) Skupaj s Past Simplom:
While we were sitting at the breakfast table, the telephone rang.  (pogosto ima stavek v the primerih veznik "while")

while, the whole afternoon, from nine to ten

Present Perfect Simple

HE/SHE/IT
+: He has spoken English. (He’s)
-: He has not spoken English. (hasn’t)
?: Has he spoken English?

I/WE/YOU/THEY+: They have spoken English. (They’ve)
-: They have not spoken English. (haven’t)
?: Have they spoken English?

Dejanja, ki so se zgodila v preteklosti in imajo zvezo s sedanjostjo
1) Rezultat dejanja v preteklosti je pomemben za sedanjost (ni pomembno, kdaj se je dejanje zgodilo; ko imamo določeno točko v  preteklosti - npr. yesterday – potem uporabimo Past Simple):
I have cleaned my room. (It is clean now.)
Has Peggy ever been to Tokyo? (Has Peggy been there or not?)
2) Pravkar zaključena dejanja:
He has just played handball. (It is over now.)

3) Dejanja, ki so se začela v preteklosti in se še niso končala – večinoma s "since" (+časovna točka) ali"for" (+časovno obdobje):
We have lived in Canada since 1986. (We still live there.)

just, yet, never, ever, already, so far, up to now, since, for, recently, (vprašalnici) How long/How many times, today, this week/month/year ("today, this week/month/year" je pri Present Perfect Simple-u s preteklikom v slovenščini; npr. I haven't seen her today. - današnjega dne še ni konec)

Present Perfect Continuous

HE/SHE/IT
+: He has been speaking at the conference for an hour now. (He’s)
-: He has not been speaking the truth. (hasn’t)
?: Has he been speaking the truth?

I/WE/YOU/THEY+: They have been speaking  the conference for an hour now. (They’ve)
-: They have not been speaking the truth. (haven’t)
?: Have they been speaking the truth?

1)  Dejanjih, ki so se začela v preteklosti in se nadaljujejo v sedanjost/ so se pravkar končala/ se nadaljujejo tudi v prihodnost:

  • I have been waiting for you for an hour. = Čakal sem te eno uro.
  • I have been teaching for ten years. = Učim že deset let.

2)  Neprekinjen potek neke dejavnosti - zato se pogosto pojavlja s sledečimi glagoli: try (poskusiti), live (živeti), wait (čakati), teach(poučevati), sit (sedeti), learn (učiti se),  rest (počivati), stay (ostati):

  • I have been living in the capital for a year. = Eno leto že živim v prestolnici.

3) Pri tem času je poudarek na trajanju in ne toliko na rezultatu dejanja, kot pri času "Present Perfect Simple":

  • I have been writing reports since eight. = Poročila pišem že od osmih.
  • I have written two reports since eight. = Od osmih sem napisala dve poročili.

how long, since, for,   lately, recently

 

Future Simple

I/YOU/HE/SHE/IT/WE/ YOU/THEY
+: He will speak English. (He’ll)
-: He will not speak English. (won’t)
?: Will he speak English?

1) Prihodnja dejanja, ki se zgodijo brez govorčevega vpliva (birthday, weather, itd.):
The sun will shine tomorrow. Peter will be 15 next Tuesday.

2) Spontana dejanja (niso načrtovana):
Hang on! I'll have a word with you.

in a year, next …, tomorrow

Going to

I
+: I’m going to speak to Mary.
-: I am not going to speak to Mary. (I’m)
?: Am I going to speak to Mary?

HE/SHE/IT
+: He is going to speak to Mary. (He’s)
-: He is not going to speak Mary. (isn’t)
?: Is he going to speak Mary?

WE/YOU/THEY

+: They are going to speak to Mary (They’re)
-: They are not going to speak to Mary. (aren’t)
?: Are they going to speak to Mary?

1) Načrtovana dejanja v prihodnosti:
We are going to sing at the party.
They are going to fly to South Africa.
2) Sklepanje o bližnji prihodnosti:
Look at the sky! It is going to rain.

 

 

in one year, next week, tomorrow

Past Perfect Simple

I/WE/YOU/THEY/HE/ SHE/IT
+: He had spoken to him before he moved. (He’d)
-: He had not spoken to him before he moved. (hadn’t)
?: Had he spoken to him before he moved?

Ta angleški čas je po rabi enak slovenskemu predpretekliku. Slovenski predpreteklik je že skoraj povsem izumrl (Ko je Marko prišel domov, so bili že večerjali.). Tudi v angleščini ta čas uporabljamo samo, kadar govorimo v navezi z drugim preteklim dejanjem (slednje je najpogosteje v času “Past Simple”); ko govorimo o dejanju, ki se je zgodilo pred nekim preteklim dejanjem.

  • When Marko came home, they had already had dinner. = Ko je Marko prišel domov, so bili že večerjali.

When, before, after, as soon as, by the time

Past Perfect Continuous

I/WE/YOU/THEY/HE/ SHE/IT
+: He had been speaking the truth before he left. (He’d)
-: He had not been speaking the truth before he left. (hadn’t)
?: Had he been speaking the truth before he left?

Ta čas uporabljamo, ko govorimo o dejanjih, ki so se začela v preteklosti in nadaljevala do določenega trenutka v preteklosti. To je pretekli ekvivalent časa "Present Perfect Continuous", s to razliko, da "Present Perfect Continuous" traja do sedanjosti, "Past Perfect Continuous" pa do časovne točke ali drugega dejanja v preteklosti.

  • When I saw her dog in the morning, it was really tired. It had been running around for the whole night. = Ko sem zjutraj videla njenega psa, je bil res utrujen. (Tekel je naokoli celo noč. Začel je teči v preteklosti in je do zjutraj neprekinjeno tekel.)

 

When, before, after, by the time


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