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Zaimki, ki uvajajo odvisne stavke = Pronouns Introducing Relative Clauses

1) Whose

 

"Whose" najpogosteje uporabljamo, ko govorimo o svojini oseb, lahko pa ga uporabljamo tudi za svojino živali ali stvari. Nadomešča "his/her/its/their":

  • I can ask my friend – her knowledge of accounting is very good – to give me a a piece of advice

I can ask my friend whose knowledge of accounting is very good to give me a a piece of advice. = Lahko vprašam svojo prijateljico, katere znanje računovodstva je zelo dobro, da mi da nasvet.

  • This is the man whose dog bit me. = To je moški, katerega pes me je ugriznil.
  • My favourite professor, whose book was published last week, held a really interesting lecture yesterday. = Moja najljubša profesorica, katere knjigo so izdali prejšnji teden, je imela včeraj res zanimivo predavanje.
  • Queen Elizabeth II, whose face is also on several UK banknotes, was born in 1926. = Kraljica Elizabeta II, katere obraz je na nekaj britanskih bankovcih, je bila rojena leta 1926.

 

Kdaj uporabimo "who" in kdaj "whose"?

 

  • How can I help a friend whose close relative has just died? (his close relative has just died) = Kako lahko pomagam prijatelju katerega bližnji sorodnik je pravkar umrl?
  • A relative who is also a doctor helped me clear my wound. (he is also a doctor)= Sorodnik, ki je tudi zdravnik, mi je pomagal očistiti rano.

“Whose” je namesto "his/her/its/their", “who” je namesto "he/she/they”.

 

2) Whom

 

"Whom" lahko uporabimo namesto "who", vendar samo kadar je slednji v vlogi predmeta odvisnega stavka.

  • We met a man yesterday. He will help us advertise our products.
    The man whom we met yesterday will help us advertise our products. (We met
    him.) = Moški, ki smo ga včeraj spoznali, nam bo pomagal oglaševati naše izdelke.
  • My daughter whom I gave a very strict upbringing has become a successful businesswoman. (I gave her a strict upbringing.) = Moja hči, ki sem jo zelo strogo vzgojil, je postala uspešna poslovna ženska.)

Pred  "whom" lahko postavimo tudi predlog (npr.: to whom/from whom/with whom), kar pri “who” ni možno:

  • The  people with whom we spent our winter holidays invited us to visit them. (We spent our holidays with them.) = Ljudje, s katerimi smo preživeli zimske počitnice, so nas povabili, naj jih obiščemo.
  • The schoolmate from whom I borrowed the notes hasn't failed any exam so far. (I borrowed the notes from her.) = Sošolka, od katere sem si sposodila zapiske, do zdaj še ni padla nobenega izpita.

Vendar ne slišimo pogosto "whom", še posebej ne v govorjeni angleščini, kjer navadno uporabljajo "who/that" ali sploh nič.

  • The man we met... (ali: the man who/that we met...)
  • The schoolmate I borrowed the notes from... (ali: The schoolmate who/that I borrowed the notes from...)

PRISKRBI SI KNJIGO Z VAJAMI IN REŠITVAMI

3) Which

 

“Which” se včasih ne nanaša zgolj na stvari temveč na cele stavke. Nadomešča lahko torej stvari ali cele stavke. Poglejmo si sledeč primer:

  • Mary left George. This shocked everybody. = Mary je zapustila Georga. To je vse šokiralo. (dve povedi)
    Mary left George, which shocked everybody.= Mary je zapustila Georga, kar je vse šokiralo. (ena poved)

V tem primeru "which" pomeni "Mary left George", se torej nanaša na cel stavek, ne samo na eno stvar. V primerih, kjer se navezujemo na cel stavek, moramo uporabiti "which"  (ne "what").

  • Andy passed his last exam, which is great. = Andy je naredil svoj zadnji izpit, kar je super. (Ne rečemo "what is great")
  • My ex invited me for a drink, which surprised me. = Moj bivši me je povabil na pijačo, kar me je presenetilo. (Ne rečemo "what surprised me")

 

4) All of/most of + whom/which

 

  • There were a lot of people at the club. Most of whom were men. = V klubu je bilo veliko ljudi. Večinoma so bili moški. (dve povedi)
    There were a lot of people at the club, most of whom were men. = V klubu je bilo veliko ljudi, večinoma moški. (ena poved)
  • I have a lot of friends. Most of whom are married. = Imam veliko prijateljic. Večina izmed njih je poročenih. (dve povedi)
    I have a lot of friends, most of whom are married. = Imam veliko prijateljic, večina izmed njih je poročenih. (ena poved)
  • I celebrated my birthday yesterday and received a lot of presents. I haven't opened all of them yet. = Včeraj sem praznoval rojstni dan in prejel veliko daril. Vseh še nisem odprl. (dve povedi)
    I celebrated my birthday yesterday and received a lot of presents, most of which I haven't opened yet. = Včeraj sem praznoval rojstni dan in prejel veliko daril, večino katerih še nisem odprl. (ena poved)

Na isti način lahko rečemo:

None of/neither of/any of/either of

Some of/many of/much of/(a) few of

Both of/half of/each of/one of/two of

+ who (za osebe)

+ which (za stvari)

  • I have tried a lot of cakes, none of which can be compared to this one. = Poskusil sem veliko tort, vendar se nobena ne more primerjati s to.
  • There were two young women, none of whom looked older than thirty. = Tam sta bili dve mladi ženski in nobena ni izgledala starejša od trideset.

 

5) Why

 

Rečemo "the reason (that/why)":

  • The reason (why/that) he said this is because he cares for you. = To je rekel zato, ker mu ni vseeno zate.
  • The reason (that/why) a lot of people don't start their own business is that they are afraid they will fail. = Razlog, da se veliko ljudi boji začeti s svojim poslom je, da se bojijo, da ne bodo uspeli.

 

6) When

 

Rečemo "the day/the year/the time” in podobno "(when/that)":

  • The last time (when/that) I called him was on Monday night. = Zadnjič sem ga klicala v ponedeljek ponoči.
  • On the day (when/that) you were born, it was snowing so heavily that we hardly came to the hospital in time. =Na dan, ko si se rodil, je tako močno snežilo, da smo komaj prišli pravočasno v bolnico.

 

7) Where

 

"Where" uporabljamo v odvisnih stavkih, kadar govorimo o krajih:

  • I still like visiting the place- I spent my childhood there
  • I still like visiting the place where I spent my childhood. = Še vedno rad obiščem kraj, kjer sem preživel svoje otroštvo.

Še nekaj primerov:

  • This is the park where we had our first date. = To je park, v katerem sva imela najin prvi zmenek. (Lahko rečemo tudi: This is the park (that) we had our first date in.)
  • The police are investigating the place where the victim was murdered. = Policija raziskuje kraj, kjer je bila žrtev ubita.

 

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