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Grafi in tabele = Graphs and Charts

V zgornjem desnem zavihku ("Naloge") boste našli BREZPLAČNE interaktivne vaje za poglavje:
"Grafi in tabele = Graphs and Charts"

V poslovnem svetu preprosto ne gre brez sestankov in predstavitev in pogosto se pri takšnih nastopih še toliko bolj izkažejo bodisi znanje in veščine bodisi neznanje in nezmožnost podajanja informacij. V dveh izmed prejšnjih poglavij smo vam že obširno predstavili sestanke in predstavitve, v tem delu pa boste spoznali in osvajali znanje o grafih in tabelah, ki so vsekakor pomemben spremljevalec poslovnih predstavitev. Takšen vizualni prikaz vam lahko v veliki meri pomaga pri navedbi in opisovanju določenih podatkov, seveda le, če ga znate pravilno in učinkovito tudi podati.

 

1.    USEFUL VOCABULARY = UPORABNO BESEDIŠČE

 

1.1.USEFUL EXPRESSIONS FOR DIAGRAMS (CHARTS AND GRAPHS) = UPORABNI IZRAZI ZA DIAGRAME (TABELE IN GRAFE)

  • diagram = diagram
  • bubble diagram = diagram z balončki
    • chart/table = tabela
    • line chart = črtni prikaz
    • bar chart (American English also ‘bar graph’) = palični prikaz/prikaz s stolpci
      • paired bar chart = parni palični prikaz
      • percentage bar chart = procentni palični prikaz
      • column chart = vertikalni palični prikaz
      • flow chart (flow diagram) = prikaz poteka (npr. procesa ali programa)
      • pie chart = tortni prerez
  • graph = graf
    • single line graph (graph with only one line (possibly) illustrating one trend) = graf z eno črto/enočrtni graf
    • multiple line graph = graph with more than one lines( possibly illustrating different trends) = graf z večimi črtami/veččrtni graf
  • column = stolpec
  • segment = segment/del
  • line = črta
  • solid line = a line entirely without holes (dots) = neprekinjena črta
  • broken line =  a disconnected (not continuous) line = prekinjena/črtkana črta
  • dotted line = a line made up of dots or dashes = pikčasta črta
  • curve = krivina
  • quadrant = kvadrant
  • axis (vertical/horizontal) (plural: axes) = os (navpična/vodoravna)

 

1.2.USEFUL EXPRESSIONS FOR DESCRIBING THE PROCESS (FLOW) OF A PARTICULAR EVENT WITH A DIAGRAM = UPORABNI IZRAZI PRI OPISOVANJU POTEKA DOLOČENEGA DOGODKA Z DIAGRAMOM

 

  • to increase/to rise/to go up/to grow = povečati se/dvigniti se/(z)rasti
  • to take off/to shoot up/to rocket/to soar/to boom/to jump = povečati se/zrasti zelo hitro/nepričakovano
  • to reach  peak/to reach the highest point = doseči vrh/najvišjo točko
  • to peak = doseči najvišjo točko/vrednost
  • to expand = (raz)širiti se
  • to recover/to pick up = opomoči si
  • to recover strongly = močno si opomoči
  • to recover slightly = malo si opomoči
    • to remain steady/stable/constant = ostati nespremenjen/uravnotežen
    • to stabilize/to level off = uravnovesiti se
    • to level out = izravnati/poravnati se
    • levelled out/off/stabilized = izravnan/poravnan
    • (to reach) a plateau = (doseči) stagnacijo
    • to fluctuate = nihati
    • to decrease/to decline/to fall/to go down/to drop/to reduce = znižati se/upasti
    • to shrink = skrčiti se
    • to plunge/to dive/to plummet /to sank/to crash/to tumble = nenadoma/nepričakovano upasti
    • to reach the lowest point/to hit the bottom/to hit a low/to bottom out = doseči dno/najnižjo točko

 

1.3.NOUNS OF MOVEMENT = SAMOSTALNIKI, KI IZRAŽAJO PREMIKANJE

 

  • decline = padec/upad
  • decrease = upadanje
  • drop = (hiter) upad/padec
  • fall = padec
  • fluctuation = nihanje
  • improvement = napredek
  • increase = (po)rast
  • recovery = okrevanje/povrnitev
  • reduction = zmanjšanje/znižanje
  • rise = rasti/dvigniti se

PRISKRBI SI KNJIGO S TEM POGLAVJEM IN ŠTEVILNIMI DRUGIMI

1.4.OTHER USEFUL EXPRESSIONS = OSTALI UPORABNI IZRAZI

 

  • visual display = vizualni prikaz
  • give or take = več ali manj
  • dip = upad
  • to dip = upasti
  • peak = vrh
  • position on the market = položaj na trgu
  • highest level = najboljši položaj/najvišji položaj
  • lowest level = najslabši/najnižji položaj
  • to stand at = biti na…/biti pri…
  • to improve = izboljšati (se)
  • performance = storilnost/učinkovitost
  • ups and downs = vzponi in padci
  • trend = trend/tendenca
  • upward trend = dvigajoč/rastoč trend
    • downward trend = (pro)padajoč trend
  • overall trend = splošen trend
  • to represent = predstavljati
  • correlation = vzajemnost/korelacija
  • correlated /correlative = vzajemen
  • a correlation between… = vzajemnost/korelacija med…
  • inverse correlation = nasprotna vzajemnost/korelacija
  • inversely correlated = nasprotno vzajemen
  • in the region of = v okviru/v obsegu
  • just short of = nekaj manj kot
  • to reach = doseči
  • rise of some ________ €/$ / increase of some (approximately) ________ €/$ = rast za ________ €/$
  • percent / per cent (plural: percent/per cent) = odstotek
  • percentage = odstotek/odstotna vrednost
  • section = del/presek/izrez
  • fraction = del
  • share = delež/del
  • to be well above/to be way over (e.g. expectations)= biti precej nad (npr. nad pričakovanji)
  • to be well below/to be way under = biti precej pod (npr. pod pričakovanji)
  • to account for (e.g. this part accounts for 5%)= predstavljati (npr. ta del predstavlja 5%)
  • to be preferred … over = biti izbran namesto…

 

 

1.5.USEFUL ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS WHEN DESCRIBING DIAGRAMS = UPORABNI PRIDEVNIKI IN PRISLOVI PRI OPISOVANJU DIAGRAMOV

  • steady (not liable to fluctuate or especially to fall) = uravnovešen/umirjen
    → steadily (in a steady manner) = uravnovešeno/umirjeno
  • steep (sudden and very big (esp. of a rise or a fall in an amount) = strm/neverjeten
    → steeply (in a steep manner) = strmo
  • moderate (being within reasonable or average limits; not excessive or extreme) = zmeren
    → moderately (to a moderately sufficient extent or degree) = zmerno
  • slight (small in quantity or degree; not much or almost none or at least some) = komaj/malo opazen
    → slightly (to a small degree or extent) = komaj/malo opazno
  • minimal (the least possible) = minimalen
    → minimally (to a minimal degree) = minimalno
  • substantial (fairly large) = znaten/precejšen
    → substantially (to a great extent or degree) = znatno/precejšnje
  • considerable (large/relatively large in number/amount/extent/degree) = znaten/precejšen
    → considerably (to a great extent/ degree) = znatno/precejšnje
  • sharp = (of a rise/fall/change) sudden and rapid = močan/izrazit 
    → sharply (suddenly and rapidly) = močno/izrazito
  • enormous (large in size/extent/amount/power/degree) = ogrome
    → enormously (very much/extremely) = ogromno
  • huge (unusually great in size/amount/degree/especially extent/scope) = ogromen
    → hugely (extremely) = ogromno/silno
  • rapid (done or occurring in a brief period of time) = hiter
    → rapidly (with rapid movements) = hitro
  • swift (moving very fast) = hiter/nagel
    → swiftly (in a swift manner) = hito/naglo
  • quick (done with speed/moving fast/happening very soon) = hiter/uren/nagel
    → quickly/quick (both adverbs) (fast; soon) = hitro/urno/naglo
  • sudden (happening without warning or in a short space of time) = nenaden
    → suddenly (quickly and without warning) = nenadno
  • gradual (proceeding in small stages) = postopen
    → gradually (in a gradual manner) = postopno
  • gentle (soft and mild) = nežen
    → gently (in a gentle manner) = nežno
  • marked (easily noticeable) = opazen/izrazit
    → markedly (in a clearly noticeable manner) = opazno/izrazito
  • rough (not quite exact or correct) = okviren 
    → roughly (imprecise but fairly close to correct) = okvirno
  • spectacular (very impressive) = neverjeten/spektakularen
    → spectacularly (very impressively) = neverjetno/spektakularno
  • dramatic (sensational in appearance or thrilling in effect) = dramatičen
    → dramatically (in a dramatic manner) = dramatično
  • disastrous → ((of events) having extremely unfortunate or dire consequences) = katastrofalen
  • disastrously = katastrofalno
  • slow (not moving quickly or taking a comparatively long time) = počasen
    → slowly (without speed) = počasno
  • encouraging (giving courage/confidence/hope) = spodbuden
    → encouragingly (in an encouraging manner) = spodbudno
  • disappointing (not up to expectations) = razočaranja vreden
    → disappointingly (in a disappointing manner) = razočaranja vredno

 

 

PRISKRBI SI KNJIGO S TEM POGLAVJEM IN ŠTEVILNIMI DRUGIMI

 

 

2.    USEFUL PHRASES = UPORABNE FRAZE

 

2.1.GENERAL PHRASES = SPLOŠNE FRAZE

 

  • As we can see from the diagram/chart/graph... = Kot lahko vidimo/razberemo iz diagrama/tabele/grafa...
  • As can be seen from the diagram/chart/graph… = Kot je vidno iz diagrama/tabele/grafa…
  • According to the diagram/chart/graph... = Glede na diagram/tabelo/graf…
  • As the diagram/chart/graph illustrates... = Kot ponazarja diagram/tabela/graf...
  • The diagram/chart/graph presents data (showing)... = Diagram/tabela/graf predstavlja/prikazuje podatke, (ki kažejo)…
  • The diagram/chart/graph (clearly)shows/indicates that... = Diagram/tabela/graf (jasno) kaže, da…
  • As is evident from the diagram/chart/graph = Kot je razvidno iz diagram/tabele/grafa
  • The diagram/chart/graph provides (strong) evidence that… = Diagram/tabela/graf zagotavlja/vsebuje (močne) dokaze, da/za…
  • The diagram/chart/graph provides (strong) support for the theory/thesis that… = Diagram/tabela/graf (močno/nedvomno) podpira teorijo, da/o…
  • From the diagram/chart/graph we can conclude that… = Na podlagi diagrama/tabele/grafa lahko zaključimo, da…

 

2.2.PHRASES EXPRESSING NEGATION = FRAZE, KI IZRAŽAJO NEGACIJO

 

  • The diagram/chart/graph doesn’t illustrate… = Diagram/tabela/graf ne ponazarja…
  • The diagram/chart/graph does not present data (showing)… = Diagram/tabela/graf ne predstavlja/prikazuje podatkov, (ki kažejo)…
  • The diagram/chart/graph doesn't show... = Diagram/tabela/graf ne kaže…
  • It is not evident from the diagram/chart/graph that... = Iz diagrama/tabele/grafa ni razvidno, da…
  • From the diagram/chart/graph it is not evident/clear that… = Iz diagrama/tabele/grafa ni razvidno/jasno, da…
  • From the diagram/chart/graph we cannot conclude that… = Na podlagi diagrama/tabele/grafa ne moremo zaključiti, da…
  • The diagram/chart/graph does not (clearly) indicate that… = Diagram/tabela/graf ne (po)kaže (jasno), da
  • The diagram/chart/graph doesn’t provide (strong) evidence that… = Diagram/tabela/graf ne zagotavlja (močnih) dokazov za/da…
  • The diagram/chart/graph doesn’t provide (strong) support for the theory/thesis that… = Diagram/tabele/graf ne podpira (močno) teorije/teze, da/o

 

2.3.PHRASES INDICATING INCONCLUSIVE EVIDENCE = FRAZE, KI IZRAŽAJO IZPODBITNE DOKAZE

 

  • The diagram/chart/graph does not indicate/illustrate/show whether… = Diagram/tabela/graf ne namiguje /ponazarja/kaže ali….
  • We can draw no conclusions regarding… from the diagram/chart/graph = Na podlagi digrama/tabele/grafa ne moremo potegniti nobenih zaključkov/sklepov glede…
  • The diagram/chart/graph provides inconclusive evidence regarding… = Diagram/tabela/graf ne podaja zadostnih dokazov glede…

 

 

 

PRISKRBI SI KNJIGO S TEM POGLAVJEM IN ŠTEVILNIMI DRUGIMI

 

 

Image: jscreationzs / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

  • Izbiranje ustreznega zapisa števila
  • Izbiranje ustrezne nadpomenke
  • Dopolnjevanje z besedami/besednimi zvezami
  • Odgovarjanje na vprašanja o grafu (prav/narobe)
  • Izbiranje ustrezne besede/besedne zveze za dopolnitev povedi
  • Dopolnjevanje teksta, ki opisuje tabelo
  • Dopolnjevanje teksta, ki opisuje graf
  • Dopolnjevanje teksta, ki opisuje graf
  • Izbiranje ustreznih odgovorov na vprašanja o grafih
  • Izbiranje ustreznih odgovorov na vprašanja o grafih
  • Izbiranje najustreznejšega prevoda
  • Izbiranje odgovorov na vprašanja o grafu
  • Povezovanje besed/besednih zvez z njihovimi razlagami
  • Povezovanje povedi z grafi
  • Odgovarjanje na vprašanja o grafu (prav/narobe)
  • Povezovanje števil z njihovim zapisom
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